Cycads are the most ancient seed plants still living today. Having survived several mass extinction events, they face extinction once more, except this time it is anthropocentric in nature. This is predominately due to high levels of poaching, to satisfy the demand for cycads both nationally and internationally. South Africa is recognised as one of the global hotspots for cycad diversity, with 38 endemic cycad species. Unfortunately, this rich diversity is under direct threat from poaching and the resultant illegal trade in cycads. In an effort to save this iconic and ancient group of species, the Endangered Wildlife Trust (with support from the Carter Foundation Trust in KZN and from the State Department: International Narcotics and Law Enforcement), have developed projects to support the protection of wild cycad populations in collaboration with BotSoc, DEA, Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife and SANBI. This session will provide an overview of the threats and conservations status of SA cycad species, discuss the legal provisions applicable to cycads, and conclude with law enforcement and compliance case studies.